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Max Raphael by Max Pechstein (c. 1910).
© 2018 Pechstein Hamburg / Tökendorf.
Digital image © (2018) The Museum of Modern Art/Scala, Florence.

This website commemorates the work of the German art historian and philosopher Max Raphael (1889-1952). Maintained by a small group of editors, the Max Raphael Project aims to open up Max Raphael's writings to an English-speaking audience for purposes of research and education. The presented texts are subject to change and new material is constantly being added. Please feel free to contact one of the editors in case you find any errors or would like to contribute to the development of the website.

News & updates


Two articles published in recent years have been added to the bibliography of secondary sources:

Both can be accessed online.


Title page and table of contents of Von Monet zu Picasso

An English working translation of Von Monet zu Picasso by Patrick Healy et al has been added to the resources section.


Pages of Der Cicerone


Added archival sources and secondary sources to the bibliography.


Thanks to Mr Werner Drewes, the following publication has been added to the bibliography:

Prähistorische Höhlenmalerei, Aufsätze, Briefe (Köln/Saignelégier: Bruckner & Thünker Verlag, 1993). Edited by Werner E. Drewes.

The book contains the original German typescript of Prehistoric Cave Paintings together with a selection of letters of Raphael from 1943-52 concerning the genesis of the work and addressed to Claude Schaefer, Emmy Jülich and Alis Guggenheim. It also includes an essay by Mr Drewes titled ‘Raphaels Hand-Annäherungen’.


Mr Yves Brocard kindly pointed us to a digitised address book of Pablo Picasso containing Max Raphael’s 1911/12 address in Paris: 11 Place du Panthéon. The address book can be consulted online here:

Carnet d'adresses de Pablo Picasso

(There’s some discussion about the exact number: the entry from the notebook could also be read as 17. However, a 1912 open letter by Raphael (written under the pseudonym M.R. Schönlank) titled Lieber Herr Pechstein! is headed with the address ‘Paris, Place du Panthéon 11’.)


Added Patrick Healy's essay Cézanne in the critical work of Max Raphael.


Added transcription of Max Raphael's (Auto)biography.


Recent publications:

The Invention of Expressionism